Este informe del Observatorio Europeo de las Drogas y las Toxicomanías (OEDT) analiza el reciente repunte en el uso de MDMA en Europa y la mayor oferta de MDMA de alta potencia en forma de comprimidos, cristal y en polvo. Más información, en inglés, está disponible abajo.
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Study rationale and methods In recent years signals from both formal and informal monitoring sources based in a number of countries have been flagging critical new developments within Europe’s MDMA/ecstasy market. These include signs of increased MDMA production and availability, the opening of new online markets, reports of increased use, the issuing of alerts on both high-dose MDMA tablets and adulterated tablets, and evidence of low but potentially rising numbers of MDMA-related hospital admissions, and even deaths in some countries.
In order to investigate these changes and developments in the supply and demand of one of Europe’s more established illicit drugs, a targeted ‘trendspotter’ study was initiated by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and carried out between August and October 2015. The primary aim of the study was to increase understanding of recent changes in the MDMA market in Europe. More specifically, the study set out to explore: levels and patterns of MDMA use; the MDMA market including production, supply and product availability; MDMA-related harms and deaths; and implications for law enforcement, health and social responses.
The study commenced with a phase of data collection and a literature review undertaken by a team drawn together from different sectors within the EMCDDA, and culminated in an expert meeting in Lisbon on 22–23 October 2015. Fourteen experts attended the meeting, sharing their experiences and contributing to an in-depth analysis of the topic, providing insights from drug research and monitoring, wastewater analysis, law enforcement and health perspectives.
The trendspotter study methodology incorporates a range of different investigative approaches and data collection from multiple sources. This study included two expert web surveys, a review of the international literature and available monitoring data, 15 expert presentations and findings from three facilitated working groups. Analysis was based on triangulation of these information sources, with a view to providing as complete and verified a picture as possible. The combination of routine and survey data with key informant reports and law enforcement intelligence provided a rich and in-depth view of a rapidly changing phenomenon. This report summarises the study findings and conclusions. Where results are literaturebased, references are cited, otherwise findings are based on EMCDDA monitoring and the qualitative sources described above.
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