Coca, opium poppy, and cannabis are cultivated by millions of people, mostly in the Global South. International law requires governments to uproot and destroy all cultivation of these crops not related to accepted medical and scientific use, but drug crop production still proves to be a promising livelihood for many rural populations. Efforts to replace cultivation with other activities have been mostly unsuccessful, and the current prohibitionist approach comes at an extremely high cost, including endangerment of small-holder farmers as they are pursued by police and military forces.

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