This paper has two main objectives. The first objective is to provide a general overview of Thailand’s Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act, B.E. 2545 (2002)(“the  Act”)  and the system of diversion into compulsory drug treatment that the Act has established. The second objective of this paper is to offer some preliminary observations on the implementation of the Act on its own terms — i.e. that people who are dependent on drugs should be “treated as patients and not criminals.” One of the central findings of this paper is that this approach is undermined by a number of different ways the Act has been implemented.