This evidence-based guidance aims to support the planning and implementation of effective programmes to prevent and control the transmission of infectious diseases in prison settings in the European region. It focuses on three high-burden blood-borne viruses (BBV) in the prison population, namely hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodefciency virus (HIV). The infections caused by these viruses are characterised by the same modes of blood-borne transmission and similar prevention and control interventions. The key areas covered by this guidance are prevention, treatment and care of BBVs in prison settings.