In the last two decades, countries belonging to the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation region have seen a dramatic increase in the prevalence of HIV and injecting drug use. As a result, HIV/AIDS control authorities have implemented harm reduction measures including condom promotion and needle syringe exchange. In view of the positive international experience and some success in countries in South Asia, a need was felt to replicate and expand harm reduction measures. However, questions have arisen as to whether these measures were within the bounds of national laws or whether the national laws hinder them and, if so, what can be done about them. This is the broad focus of this document.