In Oceania, drug production, trafficking and consumption remain overwhelmingly a criminal justice issue. However, Australia and New Zealand have moved towards policies that prioritise health to respond to drug use. More recently, New Zealand made the headlines with the adoption of an innovative policy towards new psychoactive substances.
Informed by international case studies, the Scottish government highlights the role of criminalisation in exacerbating harm and undermining health responses, acknowledging the need for a sweeping policy overhaul.
Eggins et al. found that there is limited high-quality scientific evidence that can be used to examine the impact of the law-enforcement mechanisms of supplier arrest and seizure on a range of drug-related outcomes.