In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the access to Harm Reduction (HR), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) treatment, care and support services remains limited among People Living with HIV/AIDS-(PLHIV)-People Who Use Drugs (PWUDs)/People Who Inject Drugs (PWIDs). To acquire a comprehensive understanding of the drug use and HR situation among PLHIV-WUDs/WIDs, a Multicentre Operational Research (OR) was conducted by the Middle East and North Africa Harm Reduction Association (MENAHRA) with support from the Global Fund. A.

Research Objectives: i) To explore the drug use context among PLHIV-WUDs/WIDs; ii) To measure the levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS, harms of drug use, and HR and healthcare services; iii) To identify HR and healthcare services and service provision; iv) To define the reasons leading to stigma and discrimination; v) To identify barriers and facilitators hindering/facilitating access to HR, HIV treatment, care and support services; and vi) To provide recommendations for improved HR and healthcare services for PLHIV-WUDs/WIDs in the region

OR subjects included 230 participants: 149 PLHIV-PWUDs/PWIDs and 81 key informants (KIs) from Morocco, Tunisia, Lebanon, Egypt, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Data were collected by trained fieldwork teams through focus group discussions (FGDs), case studies and semi-structured interviews and analysed using a socioecological framework.

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