This briefing paper from TNI explores how the drugs problem in Colombia is intertwined with structural factors at the social, economic, institutional and cultural levels that have contributed to its consolidation over the past three decades. In addition, the drug problem has taken on even more complex connotations because of its relationship to the armed conflict, particularly over the past 20 years. This has had serious consequences for the socio-economic conditions of peasant and indigenous communities affected by the production of raw materials used to produce cocaine.