Background

The ‘General Assembly’ is the principle policy-making organ of the United Nations (UN), and the only one in which all 193 UN member states have equal representation. At the request of member states, it convenes UN General Assembly Special Sessions (UNGASS) on specific issues. There was an UNGASS on drugs in 1998 at which member states agreed on a Political Declaration on Global Drug Control. Ten years later, member states met in Vienna to discuss progress made and to agree on a new Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem.

The next UN General Assembly Special Session on Drugs (UNGASS) was due to be held in 2019 – the target date set out in the 2009 Political Declaration and Action Plan for the achievement of a significant reduction in or the elimination of the demand and supply of drugs. However in September 2012, the presidents of Colombia, Guatemala and Mexico called on the UN to host an international conference on drug policy reform. Subsequently, a provision was included in an annual omnibus resolution on drug policy – sponsored by Mexico, and co-sponsored by 95 other countries – to bring forward this global drug policy summit meeting to 2016.

The preparations are already in progress starting with a mid-term review of the implementation of the 2009 Political Declaration which was held in March 2014, resulting in the adoption of a Joint Ministerial Statement by member states. During the 57th Session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs held the following week, the Commission adopted an UNGASS resolution, which sets the stage for how UNGASS preparations will be conducted over the next two years.

The UNGASS on drugs comes at a time when there have been growing calls for drug policy reform across Latin America. For the first time, sitting presidents – such as Colombia’s Juan Manuel Santos and Guatemala’s Otto Pérez Molina – are questioning the underlining premises of the international drug control paradigm and calling for debate on alternative approaches. One concrete result of such efforts was the May 2013 release of an innovative report on drug policy by the Organisation of American States (OAS), as a tool (or catalyst) for promoting regional and international debate. At this year’s UN General Assembly meeting, Santos and Pérez Molina were joined by President Enrique Pena Nieto of Mexico and President Laura Chinchilla of Costa Rica, who called for developing more effective responses to drug trafficking based on public health, respect for human rights and harm reduction. All four presidents united in calling for an open and wide-ranging debate leading up to the 2016 UNGASS.

A Hemispheric Review of the Organisation of American States, was held on 19th September 2014, which resulted in a resolution that was presented to the United Nations.

Key resources